MARK LENNIHAN/ASSOCIATED PRESS
By DEVLIN BARRETT
Updated March 28, 2016 6:29 p.m. ET
WASHINGTON—The Justice Department filed court papers Monday saying it had cracked the iPhone of a San Bernardino, Calif., terrorist, seeking to drop its legal case to force Apple Inc. to help them unlock it.
The move signals a temporary retreat from a high-stakes fight between Washington and Silicon Valley over privacy and security in the digital age.
The filing short-circuits a pending legal showdown over whether the government can force technology companies to write software to aid in criminal investigations, but it is unlikely to avert the long-term conflict between federal agents and technology executives over how secure electronic communications should be, and what firms should have to do to help the government access their customers’ data.
U.S. Says ‘Outside Party’ Could Unlock Terrorist’s iPhone (March 22)
U.S. Prosecutors Again Blast Apple in San Bernardino iPhone Dispute (March 10)
Apple Opposes Judge’s Order to Help Unlock Phone Linked to San Bernardino Attack (Feb. 17)
The iPhone Standoff Debate: Privacy, Security and What’s at Stake (Feb. 17)
The decision by federal officials to drop the case comes a week after prosecutors bowed out of a planned courtroom showdown, telling the magistrate judge in the case that they may have found a new way to access the phone without Apple’s help.
In Monday’s filing, prosecutors revealed the method had in fact worked and Apple’s assistance was no longer necessary.
Justice Department spokeswoman Melanie Newman said the FBI “is currently reviewing the information on the phone, consistent with standard investigatory procedures.”
She also signaled that while this particular phone is no longer at issue, the broader fight over encryption-protected technology is likely to continue. “It remains a priority for the government to ensure that law enforcement can obtain crucial digital information to protect national security and public safety, either with cooperation from relevant parties, or through the court system when cooperation fails. We will continue to pursue all available options for this mission, including seeking the cooperation of manufacturers and relying upon the creativity of both the public and private sectors,” she said.
An Apple spokesman didn’t immediately comment.
The dispute between technology companies such as Apple and the federal government has been brewing for more than a year. Firms increasingly have used encryption as a default setting for their products, and they have declined to help law-enforcement agencies open suspect devices in some cases.
That conflict came to a head in December, when investigators recovered the phone of Syed Rizwan Farook after he and his wife opened fire with rifles on a holiday office party in San Bernardino, killing 14 and injuring 22. Investigators couldn’t open the iPhone because of security features that don’t allow more than 10 guesses of an iPhone’s passcode.
The Justice Department eventually got a court order compelling Apple to help them bypass the passcode security features. The company fought the order, setting the stage for a possibly precedent-setting court fight on privacy.
As the two sides geared up for that fight, FBI officials said they had exhausted all possible avenues of getting into the phone before getting the court order against Apple.
In the public and legal debate that followed, the FBI argued the law doesn’t support a company making phones that are “warrant proof”—unable to be opened even with a signed order from a judge. Apple said it was fighting the order because to do what the FBI wanted would create a new security vulnerability for untold millions of iPhone users.
The filing doesn’t indicate what method the FBI used to access the data on the phone, nor does it say what, if any, evidence related to the attacks was found on it.
Officials have been tight-lipped about who offered the FBI a solution to the technical challenge, and how. A person familiar with the case said the method wasn’t developed by a government agency, but by a private entity.
The government is still engaged in a broader fight with Apple over what role, if any, the company should play in helping investigators access data on their customers’ phones.
Previous court filings indicated prosecutors were seeking similar orders against Apple involving at least 15 phones seized as part of unrelated criminal investigations around the country.
State and local prosecutors, most notably Manhattan District Attorney Cy Vance, have also pressed technology companies to help detectives access data on suspects’ phones.
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In Its Quest To Decrease Water Use, Levi’s Is Open Sourcing Production Methods
From stonewashed jeans without the “wash” to using more recycled cotton, Levi’s is working to squeeze wasted water from its clothes.
A stonewashed look usually involves a lot of water. But they realized it was possible to get the same result with ozone gas.Levi’s has spent 9 years perfecting techniques for reducing the water in your jeans.Now they’ve decided to make all of those techniques open source.</p><p>If everyone adopts them, they say the industry will save 50 billion liters or water.</p><p>The production and development teams came up with a list of alternative, water-saving ways to make jeans.</p><p>A stonewashed look usually involves a lot of water. But they realized it was possible to get the same result with ozone gas.
01 /05 Levi’s has spent 9 years perfecting techniques for reducing the water in your jeans. 02 /05 Now they’ve decided to make all of those techniques open source. 03 /05 If everyone adopts them, they say the industry will save 50 billion liters or water. 04 /05 The production and development teams came up with a list of alternative, water-saving ways to make jeans. 05 /05 A stonewashed look usually involves a lot of water. But they realized it was possible to get the same result with ozone gas.
When 20 competitors recently descended on Levi’s Eureka Innovation Lab—the test kitchen in San Francisco where Levi Strauss & Co. develops all of its new products—it was the first time that another brand had set foot inside.”Our CEO actually came in and said, ‘You know, we’ve never had you in here, and we don’t expect you to ever be in here again,'” says Michael Kobori, vice president of sustainability for the company. “But we want to share this with you because it’s too important.”
Levi’s has spent the last nine years perfecting techniques for reducing the water used to make a pair of jeans or a denim jacket. Now they’ve decided to make all of those techniques open source. If everyone adopts them, they say the industry will save 50 billion liters or water.
Apparel, it turns out, is a thirsty product.
Apparel, it turns out, is a thirsty product. When Levi’s analyzed a pair of Levi’s 501 jeans in 2007, calculating the environment impact of every step in the life cycle from growing cotton to manufacturing and a consumer doing laundry, water use stuck out. A single pair of jeans had 3,781 liters of “embedded” water.
The company started trying to bring that number down. The production and development teams came up with a list of alternative, water-saving ways to make jeans. A stonewashed look, for example, usually involves a lot of water and detergent. But they realized it was possible to get the same result with ozone gas and only a thimbleful of water.
“To get any particular finish…on a pair of jeans or on a denim trucker jacket, our designers and our developers create a recipe,” he says. “Essentially they realized that by experimenting with these steps, like experimenting with a recipe, you could cut out some steps and still get the same look.”
Five years later, the company says it has saved more than a billion liters of water.
In some cases, they were able to reduce the water used in the textile finishing process by 96%. They called the new line “Water Less,” and brought it to market. Five years later, the company says it has saved more than a billion liters of water.
“Our vendors love it because they save money on it,” says Kobori. “They use less water, they use less energy to heat the water, so they actually save production costs.”
The production team now has 21 different techniques that can product particular colors, or a particular feel, with less water. In the workshop they held with competitors, they handed out the instructions, and brought in a vendor to explain how it worked in the factory.
At the end of 2015, 28% of Levi’s products were made using Water Less techniques. By 2020, the goal is 80%. Now, every new product developed in the innovation lab uses the new techniques. The company is just working on the R&D to change some older products. “We continue to learn more every year, every season,” Kobori says.
Almost a quarter of the water used in the lifecycle of a pair of jeans comes after the jeans are made, when you’re washing them in the laundry. So Levi’s has also been trying to influence consumers, changing the care tag to say “wash less, wash cold, line dry, donate when no longer needed.”
Wash less, wash cold, line dry, donate when no longer needed.
“You don’t need to wash every time you wear your jeans,” Kobori says. “In fact, if you wait and wash only after every 10 wearings, you can save 50% of the water that you use as a consumer to wash your jeans.”
The company also buys cotton from the Better Cotton Initiative, a program that works with cotton farmers to teach them how to use less water and less pesticide. In Pakistan, a country that struggles with drought, farmers that are part of the initiative use up to 18% less water. They also learn to increase yields; in some cases, the farmers make 45% more than they did before.
By 2020, Levi’s will buy 100% “sustainable cotton,” which they define as cotton from the Better Cotton Initiative or recycled cotton. Recycled cotton is the next challenge—recycling the fibers means they lose strength, but the company is developing ways to increase the percentage of recycled cotton it can include. If the cotton is recycled, it can massively reduce the amount of water needed to produce it.
Obviously people like it, because it’s cool to have these old worn-out Levis.
They’re also trying to build a closed loop: When you’re done with your jeans, you can now drop them off for recycling at a Levi’s store. Some of those jeans may go straight back to other consumers.
“We’ve actually started taking some of those Levis and repurposing them, embellishing them a little bit, and actually reselling them as vintage Levi’s,” says Kobori. “Obviously people like it, because it’s cool to have these old worn-out Levis. But from a sustainability standpoint, it’s also great, because we continue to extend the life of the product. In this world that we’re in of fast fashion, we’re actually the ultimate slow fashion brand.”
And, of course, they’re hoping others will follow. “This whole issue of water use in apparel is big,” he says. “And if we can do something, obviously we can have even greater impact if we get others involved.”
All Images: courtesy Levi’s